Обучението по информационни технологии в област Сливен

 
Обучението по информационни технологии в област Сливен

 
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Хардуер / Централен процесор

Централен процесор
14.05.07 17:07

Същност и предназначение

Централният процесор е най-големият чип на дънната платка. Той е сърцето на компютърната система, изпълнява инструкциите и борави с данните. Представлява малка капсулирана силициева пластина с вградени микроелектронни елементи (транзистори). Микропроцесорите дълго време представляваха един-единствен чип, който се свързваше към различни по размер гнезда (sockets) върху дънната платка. Много от по-новите модели се произвеждат върху обособена платка с интегрални схеми, която се поставя в специален процесорен слот върху дънната платка. Най-важните характеристики на един процесор са:

— Тип на процесора;

— Скоростта, с която работи;

— Размер и тип на включената в него кеш-памет;

— Колко бита е шината за данни;

— Колко битова адресна шина поддържа;

— Допълнителни процесорни инструкции, които поддържа;

— Тип на физическото свързване, което поддържа

Съставни части

CPU се състои от две основни части

— Аритметико-логическо устройство (ALU)

— Контролно (управляващо) устройство (CU)

Тези части на процесора са свързани с електронна връзка, или шина (BUS). Шината действа като високоскоростна магистрала между тях. За временно съхранение на данни и инструкции процесорът използва специални клетки памет, наречени регистри.

Ако купувате преносим компютър и планирате да го използвате  в качеството на алтернатива на настолна система, за предпочитане е да изберете високопроизводителен модел, базиран на процесор Intel Core Duo или AMD Turion X2. Във всички останали случаи ще подхождат Intel Celeron, Core Solo или AMD Sempron. При избора на конфигурация не е необходимо да приемате мегахерците като важен фактор. Спрете се на модел с процесор на една-две степени по-ниско от максимално достъпния – това ще бъде напълно достатъчно за всички съвременни приложения.

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